Hand auger / hand spinner Hand augers are useful for clearing sink and bathtub drains.
A plastic boot on the end of the auger protects the finish of the visible porcelain.
Since most toilet clogs occur in the trap built into the bowl, the short cable is sufficient to break up or retrieve the greater majority of clogs. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumber%27s_snake
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category.In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll. The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction.
This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction.
Modern control valves may regulate pressure or flow downstream and operate on sophisticated automation systems. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve
Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization..
Where water resources or infrastructure or sanitation systems are insufficient for the population, people fall prey to disease, dehydration, and in extreme cases, death. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near major rivers.
Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated, but the availability of clean and fresh water remains a limiting factor on the size and density of population centers, and is expected to remain so into the foreseeable future.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation